Dialect Topography

Intermediate Tutorial

  1. Regional Comparisons
  2. Independent Variables: Regionality as an Independent Variable
  3. By Subregion
  4. Individual Record by Index

This tutorial is best done after the Basic Tutorial.

1. Regional Comparisons

Where is the Regional Comparison function located?
On any Results page, you will see a purple box below the table. This is the Regional Comparison function, and will allow you a quick way to compare two regions. For example, produce a Question by Region report for Montreal, question 37. Since we are only interested in the Regional Comparison functions, do not generate a graph. Check the following settings:
  1. Report Type: Question by Region
  2. Project Region: Montreal
  3. Independent Variable: Age
  4. Percent Threshold: Show all percentages
  5. Graphs: None
  6. Question: q37 - asphalt
  7. Next, Submit Query.
  8. On the Results page, scroll down to the bottom. You should now see the purple box beneath the results table. This is the Regional Comparison function.

I want to compare the pronunciations of asphalt in Montreal and Eastern Townships, according to age. How do I do this?
  1. Using the purple box, check that the Independent Variable is set to Age.
  2. For Region 1, check that it is set to Montreal and set the variant to 1. yes [sh].
  3. For Region 2, use the pulldown menu to select Eastern Townships and check that the variant is set to 1. yes [sh].
  4. Now, Submit Query.
  5. You will get a Cross-Regional Comparison page that shows Eastern Township respondents have a slight preference for the [sh] sound more than Montreal respondents do. The colours used correspond to the colour of the questionnaire for that particular survey region. You can continue to compare regions using the new purple box below the bar graph.

Compare Quebec City and Golden Horseshoe (Canada). Find out who pronounce news as [nooze], with the independent variable being Social Class.

2. Independent Variables

In this section, we will look at independent variables, such as Age and the Regionality Index. It will be useful if you read Regionality as an Independent Variable beforehand. Below are three different practice questions using the tools you have already mastered.
Recreate Figure 2 in the Regionality Index excerpt as closely as possible. While there will be differences in the percentages (since this is before merging similar variants), you should be able to obtain a graph that illustrates pop and soft drink with Regionality Index along the x-axis.

Compare Quebec City and Golden Horseshoe (Canada) with respect to Education, and examine the variant 2. shout [out]. You will notice that the different educational systems in Ontario and Quebec require different columns (e.g., Ontario Secondary is not the same as Quebec Secondary, and Quebec lacks OAC).

Compare the pronunciation variant of vase as [ause] in Quebec City and Montreal, with respect to the Language Use Index (LUI).

How do I draw line graphs for Age?
When you use the independent variable Age, the tables will show an extra column with Graph. These are buttons, and clicking the button will generate a line graph showing the variant according to age breakdown. It will appear in a new window. (This feature is not available for the By Subregions option.)

If a bar graph appears, below the bar graph is a similar button that generates a line graph that compares the top two variants. Again, a new window will appear if you select that link.

Likewise, the Regional Comparison option will also add a button that draws a line graph comparing the two selected entries.

The labels for the lines are too long. Also I want to change the title as well as the line styles.
Sometimes if the labels for the lines are too long, the graph may not be correctly generated. Change the name in the Abbrev. column to something shorter.

Likewise, you can change the line style, the short descriptor that acts as a title, and even change the values (in cases where you want to include other variants in the total, like merging [runners] with [running shoes], for example).

How do I graph question 15, mind the baby, in Ottawa Valley?
  1. Under Report Type, select Question by Region.
  2. Under Project Region, select Ottawa Valley.
  3. Under Question, select q15 - baby.
  4. Under Independent Variable, select Age.
  5. Under Percent Threshold, select Omit Null Responses.
  6. Under Graph, select Top Two Responses
  7. Now, Submit Query.
  8. On the results page, scroll down to the bottom. There is a link for the line graph directly above the Regional Comparison interface. Click it.
  9. A new window called Apparent Time Graphing - q15 should appear. Although this table looks fine, we will adjust the labels and symbols slightly.
  10. Change the Short Descriptor to babysitting.
  11. Change the first Abbrev. from 2.[watch] to watch-the-baby.
  12. Change the second Abbrev. from 1.[mind] to mind-the-baby.
  13. Change the Line Style of watch... to Variant 4 (silver square).
  14. Change the Line Style of mind... to Variant 6 (burgundy star).
  15. Click on Submit to see the new graph.

How do I enter my own values for a line graph?
On the View Results interface, there is a button under Graph that will take you to the Apparent Time Graphing program, where you can manually enter your own values.

What if I need to hide points on the line (e.g., to show only ages below 49)?
To hide a point on the line, you can insert a lowercase 'x' before the number. This will temporarily hide the point and lines that would normally connect it. Test the function by removing the 40-49 year-olds from the graph.
  1. For the values in the column 40-49, insert the symbol x in front of the numbers.
  2. Submit. The new graph will not have the points for 40-49, and no line will be drawn between 50-59 and 40-49, or from 40-49 to 30-39.

Generate a line graph that compares Montreal sneakers to New Brunswick sneakers. Label them as Montreal and New_Brunswick, and title it Sneakers. Use the default line styles for Montreal and New Brunswick.

3. By Subregion

How do I use the By Subregion function?
The By Subregion function is similar to Question by Region, but it allows you to look at specific subregions in a project zone. For example, it is possible to look at Quebec City's Loretteville respondents only, using the subregion interface.
  1. Under Report Type, select By Subregion.
  2. Under Project Region, select Quebec City.
  3. Select all other options as you would for Question by Region.
  4. Submit Query.
  5. A Subregions interface will appear, showing all the options you have selected.
  6. Give the window a title.
  7. Choose a subregion from the pulldown menu (Loretteville).
  8. Submit Query.

4. Individual Record by Index

How do I search for all the responses given by a single respondent?
This is an advanced function because you need to know which respondent you are looking for, and it works best in conjunction with the Excel spreadsheet downloads. While you can randomly browse records by entering a number between 0001 and 9999, there will be some gaps where there are no corresponding records.
  1. Select Individual Record by Index.
  2. Enter the Index Number for the respondent you want (at present, a number between 0001 and 9999).
  3. Submit Query.
  4. It will automatically locate the proper file.

Locate the file with Index Number 4444. Which database is it from? What did that respondent give as an answer to question 47?